popular science丨if an asteroid hits the earth, what will happen to the earth?-凯发k8娱乐登凯发k8娱乐登录

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popular science丨if an asteroid hits the earth, what will happen to the earth?
time:  2021-08-18 source: suzhou lanscientific co.,ltd.

recently, according to nasa, a "potato" with "potentially dangerous"-2011es4 asteroid will fly over the earth.


when the 2011es4 asteroid arrived near the earth's orbit, the earth and the moon also just arrived here. at that time, the earth, moon and asteroids will have a thrilling pass by.


what is an asteroid?


asteroids are a type of solar system small celestial bodies (sssb) that move around the sun in the same way as planets in the solar system, but are much smaller in volume and mass than planets. in general, asteroids are between meteoroids and dwarf planets in size, ranging from a few meters to 1,000 kilometers in diameter, including all small celestial bodies in the solar system that are not comets at this size. however, most asteroids are distributed in the inner solar system, and the physical properties of small bodies in the outer solar system are different from those in the inner solar system. therefore, the term "asteroid" is more often used to specifically refer to small bodies in the inner solar system that are not comets. celestial body.

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why is there an asteroid crashing into the earth?


like planets, asteroids orbit the sun, but their size and mass are much smaller. at present, the number of asteroids in the solar system known to man has reached one million, and most of the asteroids orbits are concentrated between mars and jupiter. because of jupiter’s interference in the asteroid belt, the asteroid’s orbit will continue to collide and break, and some matter will break away from the original orbit and collide with other planets. humans have begun to study asteroids a long time ago. , the theory of an asteroid hitting the earth has also begun to come into being.


what happens when an asteroid hits the earth?


the impact on the earth is generally distinguished according to the size of the celestial bodies that may collide with the earth.

those with a diameter of less than 10 meters will mainly turn into meteorites after entering the atmosphere. they will basically not have much impact on the earth. each year, about 40,000 tons of small meteorites will fall on the earth and become meteors across the night sky.

if a celestial body with a diameter of 20 to 100 meters hits the earth, it may have a greater impact on a radius of several thousand kilometers.

because the asteroid has a relatively large volume, the time and distance are not enough for it to burn cleanly when it enters the earth’s atmosphere, and most of its mass may still exist. if this happens, it will cause a particularly huge disaster.

in 2013, an asteroid with a diameter of about 20 meters disintegrated over chelyabinsk, russia, with a power equivalent to 300,000 tons of tnt equivalent, causing more than 1,000 people to be injured.

the probability of a celestial body of this size hitting the earth is about once every century.


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what are the ways to deal with celestial bodies hitting the earth?


destroy


in 2016, the spokesperson of russia's makeev rocket design bureau revealed that they plan to modify intercontinental ballistic missiles to destroy celestial bodies that may hit the earth. in addition, nuclear weapons or launching spacecraft can be used to crash into celestial bodies, and they can "kill together." however, some people worry that if the celestial body is exploded into multiple small pieces and scattered and hit the earth, it may also cause greater harm.


push off track


the american academy of sciences has predicted that it will take at least one to two years of early warning for a small celestial body to change its orbit. if the celestial body is larger, it may take decades.


in 2016, researchers at the university of california, santa barbara stated that they were developing laser weapons that would change the orbit of celestial bodies. the main principle is to use a laser to heat the surface of the celestial body until a jet is produced, and the reaction force will push it away from the orbit.


capture


scientists have also proposed a "capture asteroid" plan: first, a spacecraft will detect and lock a target asteroid, wrap it in a "capture bag" with a diameter of about 15 meters, and drag it into the earth-moon space. until it enters a stable orbit around the moon, astronauts will be sent to the asteroid to collect samples. this will not only relieve the asteroid's threat to the earth, but also obtain precious research data.

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