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popular science | classification of refined oil
time:  2021-08-18 source: suzhou lanscientific co.,ltd.

definition of refined oil


according to article 4 of the "measures for the administration of refined oil markets" (order no. 23 of the ministry of commerce 2006), "the refined oil mentioned in these measures refers to gasoline, kerosene, diesel and other products that meet the national product quality standards and have the same purpose. alternative fuels such as ethanol gasoline and biodiesel."


after certain processing of crude oil, petroleum products that meet the specific quality standards of the country, industry or enterprise can be produced. petroleum, also known as crude oil, is a black and viscous substance. crude oil is processed to produce liquefied petroleum gas, naphtha, gasoline, diesel, kerosene, lubricating oil and other oils. the by-products are petroleum coke, asphalt, fuel oil, etc. among them, petroleum fuel has the largest output, accounting for about 90% of the total output; various lubricants have the largest variety, accounting for about 5% of the total output. fuel oil: used as fuel for boilers, ships and industrial furnaces. commercial fuel oil uses viscosity to distinguish different grades.


kerosene:


the boiling point range is 180 ~ 310℃. it is mainly used for lighting and living cooking. the flame is required to be stable, bright and without black smoke, and the output is not large.


asphalt:


mainly used for roads and construction.


petroleum coke:


used as electrodes in metallurgy (steel, aluminum) and chemical (calcium carbide) industries.


jet fuel:


mainly for jet aircraft.


the boiling point range is 60~280℃ or 150~315℃ (commonly known as aviation gasoline and aviation kerosene). in order to meet the needs of high-altitude, low-temperature and high-speed flight, this type of oil requires a large amount of heat, and no solid crystals appear at -50c.


gasoline:


the most consumed variety.


the boiling point of gasoline ranges from 30 to 205°c, and the density is 0.70 to 0.78 g/cm3. for more information on oil products, please pay attention to the public oil product circle. commercial gasoline is distinguished by its anti-knock and combustion performance when it is burned in a cylinder, and it is marked as having an octane number of 70, 80, 90 or higher.


the label is large and the performance is excellent. it is mainly used as fuel for automobiles, motorcycles, speedboats, helicopters, and agricultural and forestry aircraft.


diesel fuel:


the boiling point range is 180~370℃ and 350~410℃.


for petroleum and its processed products, those with a low boiling point or boiling point range are called light, and the opposite is called heavy. therefore, the former is called light diesel, and the latter is called heavy diesel.


commercial diesel is classified according to its freezing point, such as 10, 0, -10, -20, etc., indicating the applicable ambient temperature. diesel is widely used in vehicles (including trains), ships and diesel boilers that use diesel internal combustion engines.


because high-speed diesel engines (for automobiles) are more fuel-efficient than gasoline engines, the demand for diesel is growing faster than gasoline, and some small cars also switch to diesel.


petroleum solvent:


refers to petroleum ether, 190#, 200# solvent oil.


among them, petroleum ether is divided into 30-60 degrees, 60-90 degrees, and 90-120 degrees. solvent oil is made of the dry point of the oil and used in the flavor, grease, paint industry, reagents, rubber processing, and coating industries. solvents, or cleaning instruments, meters, and mechanical parts.


lubricating oil:


lubricants made from petroleum account for more than 95% of the total lubricant output.


in addition to lubrication performance, it also has the functions of cooling, sealing, anti-corrosion, insulation, cleaning, and energy transfer. commercial lubricating oils are classified according to viscosity. high-viscosity oils are used for machinery with heavy load and low speed, and low-viscosity oils are used on the contrary.


the oil refining unit produces base oils made by various refining processes, plus a variety of additives, so it has special functions and high added output value.


grease:


the solid or semi-fluid made of lubricant thickener is used for bearings and gear parts where lubricating oil is not suitable.


there are two common types: calcium-based and lithium-based. calcium-based grease is commonly known as butter. it has the largest amount and is the most versatile. it is suitable for equipment lubrication in most cases. lithium-based grease is suitable for environments with relatively high operating temperatures.


paraffin oil:


including paraffin wax (10% of total consumption), ozokerite, petroleum jelly, etc., according to the purpose can be divided into three grades: industrial grade, cosmetic grade and food grade.


paraffin wax is mainly used as packaging materials, cosmetic raw materials and wax products, and can also be used as chemical raw materials to produce fatty acids (soap raw materials).


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